Spinal disc degeneration, which is known to be the main cause for back pain, can result in a multitude of spinal disorders such as segment instability, spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, disc herniation, and discogenic back pain. The reason for disc degeneration involves a decrease in the concentration of living cells, a decline in the nutrient supply, accumulation of degraded extracellular matrix molecules, and exposure to heavy mechanical loading over a long period of time. Disc degeneration is significant healthcare problem that is in need of more reliable and cost-effective solutions. However, few effective treatment options are available at present, and treatment relies on disectomy, foraminotomy, laminectomy, or spinal segment fusions. The biological treatment of disc degeneration using tissue engineering techniques offers significant potential for minimizing the limitations of artificial discs and intensive surgery. Tissue engineering methods focus on repairing or regenerating the damaged tissue by culturing disc-specific cells with appropriate survival and growth and factors in a 3-D scaffolding that offers appropriate mechanical support.