Environmental pollution is a continuing global problem. Toxic heavy metals contribute to a great proportion of soil and water pollution & causes problems to human beings, animals & to plants. It is becoming a critical concern and needs rapid and effective remediation. The conventional remediation methods are no longer economically valid & practical for environmental cleanup, therefore, they have to be replaced with an advanced & modern technology and that is:“using plants”, which is referred to as “phytoremediation”. This method is environmentally friendly, aesthetically pleasing, potentially cheap & offers the possibility of bio-recovery of heavy metals. This book describes a recent study focusing on arsenic & lead pollution and the prospect of remediation by using certain plants that are capable of accumulating extraordinary high amounts of heavy metals. Unfortunately the biochemical and physiological mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are still not completely understood. Therefore, investigation on the involvement of the plant’s proteome in metal accumulation, stress, & tolerance offers a new platform to understand the responsible biochemical & physiological mechanisms.