The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal attribution of success and failure among Diploma Music Students in the Aural Skills class at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Malaysia. Specifically this study aimed to look at how Diploma students perceived their achievements in the Aural Skills class based on four dimensions: Effort, Musical Ability, Lecturer or Teacher and background. This study also examined gender differences in attribution factors among diploma students. A survey of 50 Diploma music students aged 18 to 20 years was undertaken to investigate their attribution of success or failure in the Aural Skills class. Attribution was measured using an instrument modified by the researcher consisting of 24 items. Results showed that the Effort and Musical Ability categories leading causal attribution followed by the Background and Teacher or Lecturer categories. Regarding the differences in attribution between genders results revealed that significant differences in attribution by genders was found for the musical Ability and Effort categories.