Despite the fact that a number of academic studies compare the development of sport systems, a formal comparison of the elite sport programs of Pakistan with any other nation has yet to be undertaken. As a response to this gap in the literature, this thesis provides the first detailed comparison of elite sport programs in Australia and Pakistan between 1947 and 2007. In terms of the structure of the thesis, a critical evaluation of relevant sports history literature and other source material is followed by an overview of the historical background, political development, and culture of Australia and Pakistan. A descriptive narrative of different sport policies and programs in both countries is then provided and a number of important issues are subsequently analysed in a more thematic manner. Institutions responsible for the organisation of sport and physical activity in both countries are considered and the distribution of financial resources from the government to elite sporting programs is also investigated. Specific attention is given to programs associated with the Olympic Games and the Commonwealth Games.