This book focuses on analysing differences between, and common issues affecting, the education of Indigenous Australians and the Ainu in Japan in the context of globalisation. Prima facie, Australia and Japan appear to be vastly different from one other. However, as both societies are faced with the forces of globalisation, each is discovering that in several respects they are a comparable pair: two societies facing some similar pressures on their economies, societies and cultures, but with different histories, including the history of relations between indigenous minorities and the dominant ethnic group. Therefore, an aim of this study is to examine the changes in two societies undergoing reforms brought about by globalisation, from the perspective of indigenous education. This research pursues the same goal, and also provides a perspective on the history of indigenous youth in both countries and their education experiences. It also draws and analyses comparisons between the two countries and frames the implications for socio-educational changes and trends within the context of a globalising world.