How does a country´s specific institutional and cultural framework shape and result in different levels of early-stage entrepreneurship? The institutions and the national cultures investigated: the level of policy commitment, R&D expenditures, the protection of intellectual properties, the availability of financial resources and financial intermediaries and the burden arising from taxes and regulations and cultural characteristics and perceptions, create different conditions for entrepreneurship. Together with the economic development and wealth of a country, they shape opportunities for the exploitation of business creation and influence the availability and willingness of individuals of setting up a business. The Study highlights the main weaknesses and strengths of both Italy and Denmark´s performances considered as the main influencing factors affecting start-up activity. The analysis is mainly addressed for those interested in understanding the underlying factors shaping different levels of early-stage entrepreneurship activity both at a general level as well at a country specific level for Italy and Denmark.