In this work, we describe a method by which to create
cold, slow beams of molecules using a rotating
supersonic molecular beam source. The supersonic
expansion cools the internal temperature of the
molecules and the rotor velocity largely cancels the
flow velocity of the beam, slowing the beam.
Centrifugal action enhances the backing pressure of
the supersonic expansion and significantly cools the
molecules and further enhances the beam intensity.
Theoretical calculations and design specification are
presented, followed by extensive experimental results
for both supersonic and effusive molecular beams.
The latter includes beams of pure gases and seeded
beams, where the molecule of interest is further
slowed by inverse seeding in a heavy rare gas.
Finally, other molecular cooling and trapping
techniques are described including
experimentally-realized techniques (buffer gas
loading, photoassociation of cold atoms, and timed
pulsed electric fields) and several new theoretical
ideas (e.g. multi-wavelength lasers, laser scooping,
intracavity slowing, bichromatic slowing, and