The advancement of microengineering has enabled the manipulation and analysis of single cells, which is critical in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the basic physiological functions from the point of view of modern biologists. Unfortunately, analysis of single cells remains challenging from a technical perspective, mainly because of the miniature nature of the cell and the high throughput requirements of the analysis. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) emerges as a research field that shows great promise in this perspective. This book, therefore, presents a model of the microengineered analytical system that combines now-a-day most precise and high-sensitivity analytical tools all integrated into a single experiment and a single device. This example of instrumentation should shed some light on the breakthrough in single-cell cytometry. This book should be especially useful to investigators or professionals in biological or analytical related fields, or anyone else who may be considering conducting research in life sciences.