Tanganyika (Tanzania mainland) gained her independence from Britain on the 9th of December 1961. This was a joyous moment to most if not all Tanzanians. On 9th December 2011, Tanzania (a union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar) celebrated fifty years of Tanganyika’s independence. The celebrations were marked with a variety of activities, workshops, seminars, national dialogues and many more ways all aimed at showing how far the country had traveled in the fifty year period. As a way of celebrating the above, the editor and authors of the various chapters in the book thought it would be better to reviews some of the important issues such as crop production, pastoralism, education, mining, gender empowerment population and poverty. Progress in the above issues is important if the citizens of a particular country and especially Tanzania have to enjoy better living conditions. The authors of the various chapters hope that what has been presented will be of value to university students, policy makers and professionals in the touched upon areas.