This Book examines Indian views of causality such as the doctrine of pre-existence of effect known as (Satkāryavāda) and its theory of evolution or modification known as (Pariṇāmavāda) with particular focus on the Sāṁkhya Philosophy. Here I have more focused on the conceptual study of Satkāryavāda as a doctrine of causality and the basic question raised in the context of doctrine of causality is – Does the effect pre-exist in its material cause? There are two possibilities with regard to the status of the pre-existence of effect in its cause. If the effect pre-exists in its material cause, the effect is non-different from its cause. And if the effect does not pre-exist in its material cause, the effect is different from its cause. This is the basis for the division of causality into two kinds namely, Satkāryavāda and Asatkāryavāda.