Students that are classified as having an emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) perform poorly both academically and behaviorally, and their performance usually does not to improve over time. There is a need to understand the effect of learning environments on the academic achievement and self-concept of this population. In this quantitative, archival study, academic achievement and self-concept scores were compared for middle-school students with EBD based on whether the students had been placed into a self-contained learning environment (SCLE) or a mainstreamed least restrictive environment (MLRE). Archived scores for academic achievement and self-concept were evaluated for students in an urban school district in South Carolina with highly qualified special-education staff members. Academic achievement scores and self-concept scores for 2007 were compared between the two groups, with 2005 scores used as a baseline.