So far, various efforts have been made by governments and international donors to increase women participation in formal schooling and the labour market. However, evidence still persists that women in most parts of the world face numerous challenges. The general enrollment of females in Vocational Education and Training (VET) institutions is lower than males and in particular they are under-represented in science oriented. This book contributes insights that female enrollment in science oriented courses in VET institutions is very low, factors influencing their access and participation and recommends that all stake holders in education should support and initiate programmes and activities aimed at increasing female enrollment in science oriented courses. This publication will be useful to policy makers and educationist in the efforts towards gender equality in education.