Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease affecting the airways; it is associated with genetic and environmental factors. This book was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with asthma amongst school children (6-7 and 13-14 years) in Pune city, India.The prevalence of current asthma was 6.7% (7% amongst children aged 6-7 year and 6.3% amongst children aged 13-14 year). Asthma was more prevalent amongst boys (8.1%) than girls (4.9%) and also it was more amongst children studying in private schools (7.3%), versus those were studying in Municipal Corporation schools (5.8%). Family history of asthma was the strongest risk factor associated with childhood asthma in children aged 6-7 and 13-14 years in Pune city, India. History of caesarian delivery was the second strongest risk factor identified for childhood asthma. Presence of damp walls at home, snoring and use of biomass fuel for cooking at home were risk factors that are more relevant to an Indian environment. Other risk factors such as preterm delivery, parental smoking, male sex and absent of exclusive breast feeding during first 6 months of life have been reported in earlier studies.