In the past three decades, the battle towards achieving livelihood security of the rural people in Ethiopia has been passed through various rural focused approaches. The existing extension system has been widely advocated for the introduction of better technological packages in order to positively change women''s livelihoods from subsistence to self reliance. This book provides a scientific analysis of the performance and efficiency of the improved agricultural technology delivery systems and their implications in relation to gender differences. Moreover, it discusses the major factors that determine the level of adoption of the improved technologies by women headed households compared to their male counterparts. The book comprises five major parts; review of relevant literature, methodology, determinants technology adoption, parametric estimates of welfare effect of technology adoption, conclusions and recommendations. Thus, the book is useful for development practitioners, extension workers and gender experts to design gender sensitive choices of technologies, which finally may impact positively to sustain the livelihoods of women.