Agriculture is the backbone of Ethiopia''s economy and provides livelihood for the majority of the population. However, agricultural productivity has been very low and hence total production has not usually been able to feed the growing population. Several reasons were given for the low productivity of Ethiopian agriculture at different times. Among the problems are soil degradation, uncertainty of rainfall, small farm size, and absence of credit and market facilities and lack of basic education in rural areas. The implication is that in most cases these problems had been obstacles to the adoption of agricultural innovations introduced to the peasant agricultural sector, which other wise could have been adopted and increased agricultural productivity. Several measures, policies and strategies with different approaches had been taken towards improving agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The book could have a paramount significance for development experts, policy makers, researchers, professionals and students in the field of development studies.