The book investigates advanced methods and methodologies as potential candidates for practical applications in the field of urban road traffic engineering. The research results are concluded in four distinct theses. Cost-effective methods have been elaborated for vehicle queue length estimation, applicable in signalized urban traffic networks involving Kalman Filtering. A methodology has been introduced for macroscopic traffic flow estimation based on cellular phone signaling events in urban road traffic networks. An efficient distributed MPC design has been elaborated for traffic-responsive urban road traffic control. A real-time robust signal control has been presented for urban road traffic networks.