Today’s calf is tomorrow’s cow”. This sentence underscores the importance of raising calves effectively to sustain the production of the farm. Successful rearing of young calves is the key to the success of dairy farming enterprise. Calves are the future replacement stocks for the cows and bulls. It is therefore important that they are reared economically and in a sound manner to ensure early maturity. Calf mortality, especially from birth to 3 months age accounts significantly to the total mortality in cattle. It is a general practice among the farmers to neglect the calf, especially the male calves. The study was conducted on 152 clinical cases of congenital and acquired affections in cow calves and buffalo calves of either sex of less than 1 year of age. The congenital affections were recorded in 44 (28.95%) calves and acquired were recorded in 108 (71.05%) calves.