Revision with unchanged content. Over the last several decades the cost of attending college, both two and four year, public and private institutions, has increased. The rising cost has been shifted away from the individual states and to students and their family. Therefore, it is important to examine how states can improve performance and efficiency of their higher education systems by finding new ways to balance the needs of government with the needs of colleges and universities. This book provides an analysis of three types of state higher education governance structures: (a) consolidated governing boards, (b) coordinating boards, and (c) planning/service agency and their impact on affordability across the 50 states. How the institutional strength of the governor, professionalism of the state legislature and impact of special interest groups impacts affordability is identified as well. The outcomes of this analysis may help policy makers prioritize resources when addressing issues of affordability.