The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples'' Rights on the Establishment of the African Court on Human and Peoples'' Rights entered into force in 2004, after acquiring the required number of ratification set forth therein. Needless to say, so much was expected of the Court in protecting human and peoples'' rights in the continent, ‘better known for violation than compliance''. However, as of January 2010, the number of cases that the Court has entertained is just one. This book holds that it would prove to be difficult for the Court to be up to its expectations for various reasons. Hence, the book tries to explore some of the important challenges facing the Court. On the other hand, the book also examines a number of opportunities of the Court in its mandate of protecting human and peoples'' rights. It is, therefore, believed that the book will be useful for, inter alia, researchers, teachers, students, members of the Court, or anyone else who may want to become familiar with this institution.