Age estimation through dental parameters can aid human identification, assist the determination of legal liability of teenagers and adults of unknown age, assist adoption processes, help release retirement funds for adults of unknown age as well as support research in Archeology and Paleodemography. Dental cementum is a mineralized tissue that is deposited in layers around dental roots. According to some researchers, counting these microscopic incremental layers could lead to an age estimation of humans. Some authors claimed positive results, while others rejected the technique. This study, conducted at the Forensic Anthropology and Odontology Laboratory at Universidade de São Paulo (OFLAB-FOUSP), relates the first application of this technique to a Brazilian sample and its perspectives to be used in forensic situations. Topics on manual preparation of mineralized ground slides, section observation on polarized and light microscopy, digital image analysis protocol and interpretation, error and counting repeatability are approached and discussed in this book, providing the reader one more point of view on this technique.