This research examines the role of biotechnology in terms improving agricultural production. It examines the progress of the technology in agriculture and its application in Ethiopia. It particularly stresses on the types of interventions made so far by Ethiopia and its potentials when best policies are alongside applied. Expert opinion is sought in order to identify key recommendations. The study concludes that with proper guidelines and enhanced R&D capacity on agriculture, agricultural biotechnology has the potential to address food security challenges of Ethiopia.