The consequences Of Green Revolution have been shown in this study to be important for demographic changes, particularly for birth rates. An effort has been made here to establish the various influences of agricultural development and some socio-economic-demographic factors in fertility. Agricultural development with its accompanying socio-economic changes was able to change the perceived benefit-cost matrix in respect of number of children from the point of view of rural parents leading them to choose a significantly smaller family size over the years. By and large, the exercise seems to fit quite well with the expected behavioural framework of the theory of household, which highlights female education, female employment and a continuation of technological transformation of Indian agriculture as potential areas for policy regarding fertility control. This book should help shed light on the complex relationship between population growth and economic change and should be of interest to researchers and policy makers in the related area.