This book uses household’s level data collected across different regions of rural and urban in Rwanda to study household’s welfare dynamics. We measure the level of inequality and poverty between and within sectors and regions, and then we explain the supply chain in coffee sector. In particular we try to estimate the contribution of urban and rural areas to the overall level of inequality in Rwanda and attempts to understand the determinants of difference which exists between expenditure inequality in urban and rural areas in period of 6 years between 2000-2006. The results indicate reasonable level of inequality between and within regions and sectors. We observe a low level of inequality in food expenditures and the highest level of inequality in health sector and utilities uses (Electricity, Water). In coffee sector, We found that farmers participating in the specialty coffee value chain receive a higher price for their coffee beans compared to those who produced in the value chain of standard quality. We used data from 2000-2006. Rwanda has achieved alot after that period as shown in EICV III results: One million more out of poverty. EICV III not used in this work.