Lignocellulosics, simply referred as Agro-based resources, are the resources that contain cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. These generally include wood, agricultural residues, water plants, grasses and other plant substances . Their composition, properties and structure that make them suitable for uses such as composite, textile, pulp and paper manufacture. In addition, agro-fibers can also be used to produce fuel, chemicals, enzymes and food. The work presented in this book includes the analysis of chemical composition, anatomical characteristic, anatomy, lignin distribution, fiber dimension, cell wall structure, thermal properties, x-ray diffraction, microfibril angle and single fiber testing (bundle) of empty fruit bunch (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), oil palm frond (OPF), coconut (COIR), pineapple leaf (PALF), banana stem (BS) and bagasse (BG) fibers.