The loss of agro-biodiversity is threatening the food security and livelihood of smallholding poor farmers in Indian Himalaya. Under such a scenario farmer-focused livelihood centre study on agro-biodiversity conservation is a timely one. The real worth of agro-biodiversity cannot be realized by the farming community unless such bio-wealth is converted into income-generating enterprises by identifying and adding value. The potential benefits from these resources have not been exploited in middle hills of Indian Himalayas because of the lack of institutional and financial capabilities. Agricultural biodiversity can only be saved if the country's path of development undergoes fundamental changes. Currently, the development policies of countries like India appear to be heading further into the direction of unsustainability, fuelled by its own internal contradictions. Unless the new economic policies and the proposed changes in legal regimes governing agriculture are challenged with united action and alternative visions, concerns related to biodiversity, sustainability, and equity will remain subordinated to the lure of profit.