Ashwagandha is an adoptogenic herb and its roots, seeds and leaves are used in ayurvedic and unani medicines.Ashwagandha root contains 0.4 – 1.2% alkaloids, 40-65% starch, 40-65% fibres and minor quantity of oil. The important chemical constituents are alkaloids (withanolides) that are present in roots, leaf and berries. The root drug finds an important place in treatment of rheumatic pain, inflammation of joints, nervous disorders, female disorders, hiccup, cold, cough, as a sedative, ulcers, leprosy etc. The leaf paste is applied for carbuncles, inflammation and swellings and leaf juice is useful in conjunctivitis. bark decoction is taken for asthama and applied locally to bed sores. Ashwagandha and its extracts are used in the preparation of herbal tea, powders, tablets and syrups.This book covers the information on agrotechniques to enhance the productivity of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera dunal) in vertisols of northern dry zone of Karnataka.