An orphan is a child permanently bereaved of or abandoned by his or her parents. In common usage, only a child who has lost both parents is called an orphan. Orphan children tend to manifest more depression, personality disorder, and anxiety/insomnia tendencies than do non-orphans. These orphan children may present psychosomatic symptoms and health worries that may impede positive mental health. Material and emotional supports from parents during childhood may have enduring psychosocial health benefits. In this book, an attempt has been made to discuss the situation of orphan children in various countries with special focus on African countries. Relation between AIDS and orphan children are also discussed in this book. Initiatives of various governments and NGO are also included in this book.