This library based research observes different Islamic responses to the crisis of AIDS, as a contestation of Muslims theological understanding of the pandemic. This book foregrounds its research by presenting a comparative study of the response of Malik Badri and Farid Esack, as both Muslim thinkers have different way of responding to the AIDS crisis from certain Islamic perspective. Based on the comparison, this book will observe further the responses of Indonesian Muslims to the issue of AIDS in Indonesia. For this particular concern, it will investigate the responses of the three biggest Islamic institutions in Indonesia which are NU (Nahdlatul Ulama), Muhammadiyah, and MUI (The council of Indonesian Ulama). Their fatawa (legal Islamic decrees) and publications on Islam and AIDS will be further analyzed based on the frame of contestation between Malik Badri and Farid Esack.