U.S. air transportation expanded significantly in many dimensions during the last decade. This dissertation investigates the implication of this expansion on labor productivity at the metropolitan level. Using theoretical insights from regional science, urban economics and the results of empirical studies on U.S. regional and urban economic growth, the dissertation develops and uses a conceptual framework and an econometric model to conduct an analysis of airport activity and regional economic data for 295 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas. The results show a positive statistically significant relationship between airport activity levels and labor productivity for U.S. MSA’s. They also show that regional specialization in producer services has a positive effect on level of airport activity while specialization in consumer services tends to be associated negatively with airport activity. The study concludes with discussions of possible areas for further research and a number of ways theresults can be used in developing economic-growth oriented policies that involve the expansion of regional airport services.