This book aimed to make an alternative development policy which can encourage the foreign trade efficiency. In order to make the policy, the current situation of Mongolian Foreign Trade has been determined and invented the product sectors that have a chance to be developed for the further. In this book, several methods such as Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) method, Product Space Analysis or Monkey and Tree Model, Opportunity Index, and Gravity Model have been used to make analysis. The book illustrates that firstly, Mongolian Foreign Trade has been becoming more dependent from a single country, a single product and there is no structural shift. In other words, the most part of Mongolian export goods consist of the products that have low sophistication level and low value added, and based on natural resources. Also, the diversification of export goods basket is poor and even no unique products are included in the basket. Therefore, this book suggests an alternative development policy based on Hidalgo, Ricardo Hausmann, and Bailey Klinger’s policy recommendations and foreign trade policy experience of China whose economic performance was the best in the world last 30 years.