Trypanosomiasis is one of the major parasitic disease for which control is still far from reality. Alternative approaches in both treatment and vaccination against trypanosomiasis are presented here. Results suggest that truncated APOL1 could be developed as an alternative drug for treatment of HAT. Trypanosomiasis is mainly considered as a disease of Africa. However, Trypanosoma evansi infections are not limited to Africa, and occur also in South America and Asia. Surprisingly, information on the immunobiologial aspects of this infection is scarce. Hence, one part of this work focused on the study of experimental T. evansi infection in different immunological settings. Finally, an alternative strategy of vaccination is also discussed here. In conclusion, development of alternative strategies for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis by using nanobodies conjugated truncated APOL1 and a GPI-based anti- disease treatment as an alternative strategy for trypanosomiasis control are discussed here.