This book focuses on the synthesis of novel representatives of sulfobetaine and carbobetaine polymers. Their synthesis, characterization and applications as photoluminescent material, biocompatible material and in analytical chemistry are presented here. A series of 7 copolymers is synthesized and presented in this book. Chapter 1 presents a relevant description of the “state of art” through literature survey. The synthesis, physical properties, characterization techniques and various experimental procedures are presented in chapter 2. Chapter 2 incorporates thermal degradation characteristics and antibacterial properties of these polymers. One of the sulfobetaine polymer showed photoluminescence characteristics which was studied in steady state as well with varying time domain and results are discussed in chapter 3. One of the polycarbobetaine was crosslinked with a diacrylate crosslinker and a series of gel was synthesized and studied in detail for their swelling characterization and their results are discussed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 and 6 deals with representatives of polybetaine tested as a novel polymer format for molecular imprinting of L-aspartic acid and baclofen drug.