Formative assessment (FA) has become the platform for educational reform in many nations around the world. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the recent transitions which have created the circumstances for this burgeoning interest and describes the conceptions and processes that underpin FA. Chapter 2 engages in a detailed discussion on how the FA concept is perceived, particularly in the US. Chapter 3 highlights culturally responsive pedagogy. Chapter 4 emphasizes that FA is an interactive process requiring 'adaptive expertise'. Chapter 5 uses a case-study method, focusing on the experiences of more than 1500 schools in the Scottish region of the UK in order to explore the challenges and benefits in practical settings. Chapter 6 engages with the theoretical framework of FA before going on to focus on self-regulated learning in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 undertakes a unique scientific investigation and uncovers the neural basis for peer-learning and academic motivation. Chapter 9 builds on those findings by sharing the conceptual knowledge required to establish and sustain effective learning environments. The final chapter elaborates on some key questions about classroom assessment strategies.