Metallurgy is placed at the top of many manufacturing technological flow, being the main supplier of raw materials (i.e. metallurgical products) for industries and sub economic sectors. Consequently, it affects a large on the overall development of the national economy. After the 1990 Romanian metallurgical industry has faced serious difficulties, caused firstly because the market declined in domestic demand and secondly due to the rules imposed by foreign markets. Metallurgy is distributed throughout the country, primary processing of minerals are located near sources of raw materials, which help improve the business efficiency. The book includes analysis of the cost efficiency and profitability in the Metalurgically industry of Romanian economy.