This publication presents the findings of the relationship between human activities and environment at local scale. It is anticipated to fill a literature gap in the nexus between population and environment. The thesis reveals that the correlates of land resource management at the household level vary across households. Despite the current government's propitious strategies to enhance the carrying capacity of the environment and ultimately improving the livelihood of the rural community, numerous rural households have been found to be still suffering from the consequences of severe degradation land and deterioration of water surfaces in the district. The causes of land degradation in rural Ethiopia in general and the study area in particular have been found to be wide-ranging and interlocked, requiring a meticulous integrated approach to deeply put an end to the prevailing problems of land resource management practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this glaring environmental problems occurring at varying spatial and temporal scales require a thorough and in depth study in order to address the problems.