In the late 2000 the President of Tanzania announced the decision to remove school fees in primary schools – known as the Universal Primary Education (UPE) fee amounting to Tsh. 2000 (USD1.80) annually per pupil – as from January 2002. This decision represented an ideological turning point retreating from the established paradigm of cost sharing in provision of essential public services. The argument for abolishing primary school fee is straightforward that school fees and other direct costs that households must bear, represent a significant obstacle to enrollment, especially for the poor and vulnerable children. Abolishing school fees will make it easier for children of all social classes to be enrolled in schools, thus accelerating progress towards the achievement of Education For All (EFA) goals. But ending school fees is no magic wand. Surge in enrollment after fee abolition brings immense challenges to the entire education system by overwhelming the available supply of schools, teachers, and educational materials thereby reducing the quality of education being provided. This block book presents a critical analysis of the challenges of fee abolishing policy in Tanzania.