The NCLB Act imposed new requirements for students who are ELLs because participation rates and performance rates on the state assessment are a critical part of the federal accountability system. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in participation and performance rates of English Language Learners (ELL) in Texas on state-mandated assessments of Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the adapted TAKS.The increased focus on ELL student achievement and accountability has created a sense of urgency for campus leaders and teachers alike. The results of this study suggest ways that NCLB might have impacted students who are ELLs in both positive and negative ways. It is important for district and campus leaders to determine what makes a strong ELL program and then replicate those programs so that all students in ELL programs can be academically successful and enter higher education and/or the workforce well prepared. The perceptions of educational leaders determined that there are several factors that contribute to the participation and performance rates.