For many decades, most of the farmers has been tried to get produces traditionally. This contributes to stay in food insecurity even at family level. However, the needy population increases exponentially. Thus, looking for a means to maximize outputs within the existing agricultural resources is the critical concern nowadays especially to agricultural researchers and producers. Hence, this book elucidates the analyzed research results of existing farming systems and the level of agricultural resources allocation efficiency among indigenous and settler farmers in Assosa district. Four farmer associations were selected randomly and a total of 174 household heads were sampled using systematic random method. Linear Programming model was devised to examine the existing and optimal allocation of agricultural resources. The model result depicted optimal farm plan that can improve the gross margin of settlers by 113% and that of the indigenous by 56%. As a result, reallocating the available land to crops such as maize, sorghum and haricot bean by the settlers and to teff, sorghum, haricot bean and onion by the indigenous farmers improves their gross margin.