Climate variability and change is an issue of major importance to the international scientific community. This problem is portrayed here from the geological time-scale perspective. The aim of presented study is the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions prevailing during Miocene in the area of south-eastern Poland. The accomplishment of this goal has been possible on the basis of anatomical analysis and dendroclimatological examination of fossil wood. Conducted research enabled the taxonomic classification of fossil plant remains and provided also some insights into the factors that influenced the growth of Miocene trees. This work should be especially useful to professionals and students in palaeobotany field or anyone else who is interested in fossil wood.