Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Animal cognition – sometimes known as animal intelligence – is the the study of the mental capacities of non-human animals. It has developed out of comparative psychology, which includes the study of animal conditioning and learning. Animal cognition has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology. Research in animal cognition mostly concerns mammals, especially primates, cetaceans, and elephants, as well as dogs, cats, and rodents. However, research also extends to non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds, lizards, snakes, and fish...With the help of this book, you can learn more about animal cognition, tool use by animals, and characteristics such as emotion, altruism and pain in animals.