Anthropological Demography is a specialty within demography which uses anthropological theory and methods to provide a better understanding of demographic phenomena in current and past populations. It has been recognized as the basis for understanding of the genetic differentiation of human populations. It bridges between different disciplines providing basic material for the analysis of bio-cultural changes and also socio-economic and political changes. Anthropologists aim to locate these demographic transitions in various small populations that contribute a great deal to the national development. With the classification of the populations through anthropological demography one can find out which particular population can sustain which particular development plans. The main focus of the present study is to understand the levels and determinants of fertility and mortality among small tribal groups of Andhra Pradesh. The study examined socio-economic, population characteristics,Obstetric information, life course events, fertility and mortality rates, selection intensity and attitude towards modern medicare.