Grounded in a detailed study of artistic practice surrounding the development of two exhibitions, one at the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (Cambridge) and the other at the Nordiska Museet (the Nordic Museum, Stockholm), this book examines how indigenous artists and artisans challenge common assumptions about cultural continuity and authenticity through their work. In contrast to the majority of works on this theme, the author focuses on European institutions which have developed distinct ways of engaging with indigenous communities from those in North America and the Pacific. The research demonstrates that engagement with museum artefacts, contemporary artworks, and their makers can yield important insights for anthropology, which are not achievable by other means. At the same time it considers the difficulties and ambiguities involved in reaching consensus between groups with divergent agendas. Interest among museum practitioners in what indigenous artists can offer museums is explored in relation to the increasing need for museums to demonstrate their social relevance.