Microbes continue to cause infections and evolve into antibiotic-resistant more deadly forms. This relentless emergence of resistance cannot be arrested since organisms, by their nature, are distinctive in their ability to rapidly adapt, evolve and tolerate environmental changes. In addition, the rate of emergence of new pathogens could potentially further accelerate and these may become increasingly “multi-drug resistant” as they get selected for, unwittingly, as a consequence of human activity. The repetitive development of resistance causes an everlasting conflict between humans and the disease-causing organisms. Now the challenge is to coordinate a multi- disciplinary approach that tempers resistance development without compromising the short-term welfare of individual patients or national economies through the scientifically-informed introduction and use of novel antibiotics or probiotics that are designed to specifically target the pathogens. It is the purpose of this book to furnish such an account. This work had been based on exploring the capabilities of the scientific techniques to discovery novel antibiotics and probiotics active against the pandemic pathogens.