The fate of antibiotic pharmaceuticals entering the environment has become an increasing concern for researchers and regulators in the past decade. Terraccumulation and mobility of waste antibiotics in soil should not be overlooked as a contributor to the spread of bacterial resistance and the resulting threat to human drug therapy. This book critically examines recent global trends of bacterial resistance; explains antibiotic contaminant pathways from agriculture and water treatment processes; investigates contaminant removal by drinking water filters; models antibiotic fate in filters to illustrate the necessity for an holistic view of pollution pathways; and presents the need to incorporate diffuse pollution pathways into risk assessment and treatment system design. The research presented in this book was among the first to investigate antibiotics in water treatment systems. The alignment of scientific and engineering research with strategies applied in clinical situations could contribute to continued efficacy of antibiotic therapies necessary for human health and welfare.