Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary approach to make our life easier than ever. Wood is widely used by human being since civilization and preserving wood is rather an important issue. Traditional methods have to be left behind and we need to think for the upgraded methods. Biotechnology can be used for the preservation and maintenance of wood quality and it has been proved very effective. This monograph would give emphasis to the chemical and biological approaches of wood preservation that is environmentally safe and easy to handle.