The human dream was to see the interior of the body. Endoscopy is a procedure that uses a narrow telescope to view the interior of a viscus or a preformed space. In gynecology, endoscopes are used most often to diagnose conditions by direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity (laparoscopy) or the inside of the uterus through a transcervical approach (hysteroscopy). Endoscopy has affected every area of gynecology, from diagnosis to therapy, from reproductive medicine to urogynecology and oncology. Laparoscopy is indicated mainly for the investigation of pelvic pain and subfertility, as well as the diagnosis of endometriosis and adhesions. Hysteroscopy is considered the gold standard technique for the assessment of the uterine cavity. It is essential that the surgeon fully understands all aspects of the use of endoscopic equipment; and should be aware of the potential risks of the procedure and their management.