Over the past few decades, the evaluation of a number of science disciplines and technologies have revolutionized food processing and packaging sector. Most notable among these are biotechnology, information technology etc. Recently “Nanotechnology”, an essentially modern scientific field that is constantly evolving as a broad area of research, with respect to food processing, preservation, packaging and development of functional foods. In this book, several applications of nano-materials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nano-composites as high barrier packaging materials, nano-particles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nano-sensors and nano-material-based assays for the detection of food relevant analytes. The technical benefits of actual and near market applications are described. The uncertainties over risks that some of these novel materials may pose to consumer safety and environmental safety are outlined.