The present book is intended to provide an important overview of various processes and procedures devoted to the eco-sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals. In recent decade, using an applicable industrial catalyst that is eco-friendly, green and simply recycled in the reaction mixtures has been under attention. Thus, I believe that this book represents an important contribution to eco-sustainable chemistry and should be of interest for both young and senior researchers involved in this field. Synthetic organic chemistry especially has grown quickly through the design of new intelligent reagents and the discovery of innovative and widely applicable reaction methods. There is strong competition between research groups throughout the world to do this. High efficiency based on environmentally benign concepts is strongly required of synthetic organic chemistry in twenty first century. The efficiency involves not only a short reaction process and higher yield in each step, but also lower energy costs and reaction with less waste (high atom economy), and of course from the economical aspect the selection of cheap and easily available materials for the reaction sequence.