This book is about historical archaeology. It treats historical issues through archaeology. Thus, it provides information about the significances of early ''archaeological practices'' during the reign of Emperor Menelik II.Menelik II is the founder of modern Ethiopia. Early archaeological studies in Ethiopia had been encouraged by Menelik II. In 1905 he expressed his desire for German archaeological mission to study the historical sites in Ethiopia. Apart from this, Menelik II himself had a special interest in archaeology. Although there were no designed programs for archaeology during his reign, the monarch had conducted “archaeological programs” in search for Christian past from ruins of royal churches and camp sites. Menelik’s archaeological programs had centered in the provinces of Wollo and Shewa. Archaeology was instrumental in revealing material evidences of the past in affirming his legitimacy and justifying the conquered territories. All efforts of Menelik’s “archaeological programs” seem to an answer to internal and external pressures.