The study was carried out to evaluate efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) service and reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under smallholder farmers conditions in North Shewa zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. The study involved retrospective evaluation of the efficiency of AI using 9 years recorded data of 576 cows from the district AI centers. A total of 240 households (120 AI beneficiary and 120 non-beneficiary households) were selected Purposively from 2 districts for the study, and interviewed using structured and semi-structured questionnaire to generate data on household characteristics, dairy cattle management and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Forty straws of frozen semen was sampled from both districts, thawed and evaluated at the district level for its quality following standard procedures. Generally, coverage of the AI service and the ongoing activities to improve and expand crossbred dairy cattle production at smallholder level in the area should be encouraged. Equally important, efforts should be geared to improve the different factors that have been reported to limit efficiency of AI and reproductive performance of dairy cows.